E-waste, or electronic waste, is waste generated by all types of electronics, including computers and mobile phones, as well as household electronics such as food processors, pressure cookers, and so on.
The environmental consequences of improper E-waste recycling are little understood; however, these consequences pose very real threats and dangers to the global environment at large. Improper disposal of these electronic wastes has an impact on the environment’s soil, air, and water components.
Effects on the atmosphere
One of the most common effects of E-waste on the environment is air pollution. A number of landfill scavengers scour numerous landfills for improperly disposed electronics such as wires, blenders, and so on in order to profit from the recycling of these wastes. These men use open air burning to extract the copper (a very valuable commodity) from wires, which can release hydrocarbons into the air.
When heavy metals such as lead, barium, mercury, lithium (found in mobile phone and computer batteries), and others are improperly disposed of, they leach through the soil and reach groundwater channels, eventually reaching the surface as streams or small ponds of water. Local communities frequently rely on these bodies of water and groundwater. Apart from causing the death of some of the plants and animals that live in the water, drinking contaminated water causes lead poisoning in humans and land animals. Some of these heavy metals are carcinogenic as well.
Effects on the soil
Toxic heavy metals and chemicals from e-waste enter the soil-crop-food pathway in this way, which is one of the most important routes for heavy metal exposure to humans. Because these chemicals are not biodegradable, they remain in the environment for extended periods of time, increasing the risk of exposure.
E-Waste Recycling Procedure
Because discarded electronics devices are sophisticated devices made from varying proportions of glass, metals, and plastics, recycling them can be difficult. The E-Waste Recycling process varies depending on the materials recycled and the technologies used, but here is a general overview.
Collection and Transportation: Collection and transportation are two of the first steps in the recycling process, which includes e-waste. Recycling companies place collection bins or electronics take-back booths in strategic locations and transport the collected e-waste to recycling plants and facilities.
Shredding, Sorting, and Separation: Materials in the e-waste stream must be processed and separated into clean commodities that can be used to make new products after being collected and transported to recycling facilities. The foundation of electronics recycling is efficient material separation. The initial shredding of the e-waste stream aids in the separation of plastics from metals and internal circuitry. To prepare for further sorting, e-waste is shredded into pieces as small as 100mm.
Iron and steel are separated from the waste stream on the conveyor by a powerful overhead magnet. The separated steel materials are then processed so that they can be sold as recycled steel. Further mechanical processing separates aluminium, copper, and circuit boards from the now mostly plastic material stream. The glass is then separated from the plastics using a water separation technology. Visual inspection and hand sorting improve the extraction quality. Aluminum, copper, and circuit board separated streams are collected and prepared for sale as recycled commodity materials.
In the process, advanced separation technologies are used. To further purify the stream, the final step in the separation process locates and extracts any remaining metal remnants from the plastics.Preparation for Sale as Recycled Materials: Following the completion of the shredding, sorting, and separation stages, the separated materials are prepared for sale as usable raw materials for the manufacture of new electronics or other products.